Imam Ali (AS)

Who Is Imam Ali (A.S)?

 

 

hashie bala

 

Collected by: Mojdeh Farzad

Introduction

All the human beings experience ups and downs and face different problems in life. The individuals, usually get weak and unable when facing a problem and try with the aid and guide of the experts to save themselves from the trouble. And by finding the "examples" in any field, and then following them, perform their duties in the best way as to solve their problems and relieve their pains. One of these examples is the honored Prophet Mohammad (PBUH&HF) whom the holy Quran has described (identified) as such. Other than the messenger of Allah, if we look for another example and replacement for His holiness, we would find a great example as the (leader of the) pious, his holiness Imam Ali (A.S). Morals and behavior, to go through his holiness ups and downs, and amazements of life.

   

Manner of birth

His holiness Ali (A.S) is from Bani-Hashim. His father Abu Talib is the son of Abd al-Muttalib the son of Hashim ibn Abd-Manaf and his mother is Fatima the daughter of Asad who is the son of Hashim ibn abd-manaf. The Hashimi family in the tribe of Quraysh is famous for its moral virtues and supreme humanistic characteristics among the Arab tribes.

Magnanimity, generosity, courage, and so many other virtues are of famous characteristics of Bani-Hashim. Moreover, each of these virtues at its highest degree exist in his holiness Ali's (A.S) nature. In his birthday, his mother – Fatimah Bint Asad- went to the “Al-Haram Mosque” when she felt labor pain and came close to the wall of Kaaba and said:

"O Allah, I have firm faith in You, the prophets and the books sent by You and also the word of my grandfather Abraham, the builder of this house.

O Allah, for the sake of Abraham, who built this house and for the sake of this child in my womb, make the birth of this child easy for me".

An instant later, before the eyes of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib and Yazeed ibn Taaf, the walls of Kaaba broke open and Fatimah bint Asad, who was pregnant with Ali, went in. After she entered, the walls closed again and for three days and nights, no one was able to enter the Kaaba, even from the door. After three days and three nights, on the 13th of Rajab, thirty years passed the 'Am al-Fil (Year of the Elephant) [1]; the wall broke open again, and Fatimah came out with her infant and said: "I heard a message from the unseen to call my newborn son, Ali" [2].

   

Period of childhood

His holiness Ali (A.S) did not stay with his parents for long. Since it was Allah's will for him to gain more perfection, therefore, the honored Prophet (PBUH&HF) from the beginning of his birth took care of his education.

Until a year when Abu-Talib, the prophet’s (PBUH&HF) uncle faced a heavy living expense. The honored Prophet (PBUH&HF) with the consultation of his uncle Abbas, agreed that each one of them adopt one of the children of Abu-Talib as to make a relief for Abu-Talib. Therefore, Abbas took Ja’far and the holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) took Ali (A.S) to his house. In this way his holiness Ali (A.S) was adopted by the holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) and was beside him full time, always accompanying him even when the Prophet (PBUH&HF) would leave the town and go to the mountain and desert for meditation [3].

   

Appointment of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) and Ali (A.S)

There is no doubt that acceleration in good deeds is a kind of privilege virtue and the exalted Allah in several verses asked His salves to perform them and asked them to compete with each other to do them. One of the virtues of his holiness Ali (A.S) is that he is the first one to believe in the Prophet (PBUH&HF). Ibn Abi'l-Hadid says: "Know that among the great, big and scholastic theologians of the Mutazilites there is no dispute that Ali ibn- Abu-Talib is the first person to believe in Islam; and to support the messenger of Allah" [4].

 

Ali (A.S) the first supporter to the honored Prophet (PBUH&HF)

After the revelation of Allah, the selection of His holiness - the Prophet Mohammad (PBUH&HF) - for prophethood and the three years of secret preaching, finally, the messenger of revelation arrived and the order for public preaching was given. At this juncture, his holiness Ali (A.S) was the only enforcer of the Prophet (PBUH&HF) plans in his divine propagation; and was the only companion and sympathetic to his holiness in the invitation arranged to invite his relatives to Islam as the religion of Allah. In this invitation, the holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) asked the people present:

"Who is among you to help me in this way so to be my brother, successor and representative among you?"

Only Ali (AS) answered:

"O Prophet of Allah, I will support you in this way".

The prophet (PBUH&HF) after three times repeating the question and hearing the same answer said:

"O my relatives; Know that Ali (AS) is my brother, successor, and Caliph after me among you" [5].

During the night that the various polytheists from different tribes conspired to assassinate the Prophet, Gabriel (the angel of revelation) informed the Prophet of this plot. The Prophet also informed Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS). When the terrorists attacked the Prophet’s house during the night, to cowardly kill him during his sleeps, they saw that Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS), not the Prophet (PBUH&HF) was sleeping in the bed. He endangered his own life and slept in the Prophet’s place so that the Prophet and future of Islam would stay safe [6].

 

Ali (AS) after the migration

After the migration of his holiness Ali (AS) and the prophet (PBUH&HF) to Medina, we explain two examples of the virtues of Ali (AS):

1. During 23 years of great Prophet's (PBUH&HF) time, The Quraysh and idle-worshipers imposed 27 wars upon Muslims. And his holiness Ali (AS) was present in 26 of them, defending Muslims and Prophet Mohammad (PBUH&HF) through endangering his life in the battles' front.

2. Registering (keeping) and writing the revelation [Quran]: Writing the revelation, organizing (arranging) many of the historical and political documents and writing propagation and invitation letters, both in Mecca and Medina, And for this reason, he is considered as one of the writers of the revelation and memorizers of the Quran [7].

When holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) arrived to Medina, he issued the decree of Muslims brotherhood, which was a brotherhood contract between Muslims’ couples. That concluded the contract of brotherhood with his holiness Ali (AS) and the Prophet (PBUH&HF) who said to his holiness Ali (AS):

"You are my brother in this world and in the hereafter, swearing by the Allah who has appointed me with the truth. I choose you as my brother, a brotherhood that is to the extent of both worlds" [8].

   

Ali (A.S), the son-in-law of the honored prophet (PBUH&HF):

Once some people suggested his holiness Ali (AS) to propose to the prophet Mohammad (PBUH&HF) for marrying his only daughter Fatimah (AS). Since he had rejected many of his great companies (Sahabah) who had asked for that before. Ali (AS) accepted and went towards the house of the prophet (PBUH&HF). When he saw him, the glory of the presence of the prophet (PBUH&HF) prevented him from speaking until the honored prophet (PBUH&HF) asked for the reason for his coming; then his holiness Ali (AS) said: “Do you deem it wise for me to marry your daughter Fatimah?” The holy prophet (PBUH&HF) asked his daughter about her opinion; and after the acceptance of her, his holiness Ali (AS) became the son-in-law of the honored prophet (PBUH&HF) [9].

   

The event of Ghadir Khumm

In the last Year of the Prophet's (PBUH&HF) life, after finishing the rituals of pilgrimage (Hajj) and when returning to Medina, in a place called the Khumm pond close to Juhfah, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) ordered people to stop, because the revelation angel had commanded him to deliver an important message from Allah. After the noon prayer, the Prophet (BHU&HF) went up the pulpit of the camels' saddles and said:

"O people, it is soon that I answer the call of Allah and go from among you. What do you think about me"?

People said:

"We witness that you have propagated the religion of Allah".

Prophet (PBUH&HF) said:

“Don’t you witness that there is no Allah but the One Allah and Mohammad (PBUH&HF) is His slave and messenger?"

People said: "Yes, we witness".

Then the prophet (PBUH&HF) raised the hand of his holiness Ali (A.S) and said:

"O People! Among the believers who is more worthy than themselves?" People said: "Allah and His prophet know better".

Then the holy Prophet (PBUH&HF) said:

"O People who ever Iam his master and leader; from now on Ali is his master and leader".

In addition, he repeated this sentence three times. Then the people congratulated this selection to his holiness Ali (A.S) and swore allegiance to him [10].

No person during any era of history had the unique characteristics possessed by Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS). If, for the sake of argument, the people, rather than God, were to pick the best and most qualified person as the successor to the Prophet, no person was more suitable than Ali for this position.

1-         Ali, who was the cousin of the Prophet, came to this world from a pure and distinguished line. The ancestors of Mohammad (PBUH&HF) and Ali (AS) were all theists and followers of their ancestor Abraham [11].

2-         Ali is the only person in all of history that was given permission by God to be born in the Holy Kaaba, in that miraculous fashion [12].

3-         From early childhood, Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) was brought up in the Prophet’s (PBUH&HF) home, under his supervision [13].

4-         When the Messenger of Mercy was appointed to Prophethood in order to wake up and guide the ignorant, idol worshipping, and immoral people, Ali was only 10 years old, but according to all historians, was the first man to believe in the Prophet [14].

5-         Due to the abstinence of the Meccan Polytheists and lack of readiness from Meccan society for putting aside the idols, for the first 3 years of his mission, the Prophet secretly invited people to Islam [15]. During all this time, Ali and Khadija (the Prophet’s beloved wife) were the Prophet’s only supports in waking up the people.

6-         Ali (A.S) is the one who all historians agree that among those present in the prophet’s house, he volunteered to help the Prophet and stand behind his Divine Mission [16].

7-         The Prophet would always emphasize Ali ibn Abu Talib’s (AS) purity and piety [17] and God also certified the infallibility of Ali (AS) in the Verse of Tathir [18].

8-         Ali (AS) always supported and accompanied the Prophet during the wars that the enemies of truth and goodness launched against the Prophet [19].

9-         Ali (A.S) is the one who bravely slept in the prophet's (PBUH&HF) bed, and nullified the plot of the idol-worshipers to kill the prophet (PBUH&HF); And, furthermore, prepared the ground for the prophet's (PBUH&HF) migration [20].

10-       The only person about whom the Prophet said, “Ali is with the truth and the truth is with Ali” [21] was Ali (AS). The Prophet (PBUH&HF) also prayed for him as such, “Oh God, surround the truth around Ali, whichever way Ali turns” [22].

11-       The Prophet (PBUH&HF) described Ali (AS) and the 12 guides from his progeny as being the rescue ship of Muslim Nation, and said they are like Noah’s Ark. Whoever clings to them will be saved, and whoever infringes on them will drown [23].

12-       During their daily prayers, Muslims ask God to guide them to the “Straight Path” [24]. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) explained for the people that the Divine Straight Path that they ask from God every day, are Ali (AS) and his successors [25].

13-       The Prophet (PBUH&HF) reminded the people on several occasions that, “I am the City of Knowledge and Ali is its gate; whoever decides to find the City of Knowledge, must enter from its gate” [26].

14-       The Prophet (PBUH&HF) explicitly told the people that whoever wishes to understand the Holy Quran and gain guidance from it, they must, after him, refer to his successor, meaning Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS).

Ali (AS) is my successor upon my nation and [my successor] upon the interpretation of the book of God Almighty [27]. He is the commander of the Quran who will guide the people by means of the Quran [28]. If a portion of the Quran is not clear for someone and they did not learn it from me, they should refer to him for he, like I, possesses the entirety of knowledge of the Quran [29]. Ali (AS) is with the Quran and the Quran is with Ali (AS), and these two will not separate from each other until they arrive to me in the Pool of Kawthar [30].

15-       The Prophet (PBUH&HF) left no room for doubt for his friends and enemies that Ali (AS) was the apple of his eye, his trusted confident, his heir, and successor. Most importantly, as confirmed by the Holy Quran [31], Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) has reach the rank of the Prophet’s self.

16-       Even though from the very first days when the Prophet (PBUH&HF) began his mission of guiding the people, he would speak of Ali (AS) and his successors on many different occasions and spoke of their special status with God, once again during the last year of his life he gathered all the people in a place called “Ghadir Khumm” to introduce them for one more time to the Divine successors. The Prophet (PBUH&HF) officially introduced Ali (AS) and his 11 descendants as the flags of guidance, straight path, Caliphs, and successors after him in the presence of a hundred twenty thousand Muslims from various cities and tribes who had accepted his invitation to gather there. The summary of what he said at Ghadir, which was in a way part of his will, as that:

Whoever is looking for salvation and guidance must follow these 12 individuals who were chosen by God as successors to his last Prophet (PBUH&HF) [32].

The virtues of Ali (AS) are far more than the cases were cited. Ultimately, beyond all of Ali ibn Abu Talib’s (AS) traits and unique advantages which lifted him above everyone else in his era to succeed the Prophet, he was chosen by God himself. [33]

Truly, what stronger motivation and reason is there to accept Ali (AS) than to satisfy and follow the orders of God?

   

His holiness Ali (A.S) after the death of the honored Prophet (PBUH&HF)

After the death of the honored prophet (PBUH&HF) because of special conditions that raised, his holiness Ali (A.S) withdrew from the scene of the society and chose silence; He neither participated in any struggle nor spoke officially in the society. He put the sword in the sheath and engaged with individual duties and educating the individuals.

Some of the activities of Imam Ali (AS) after the holy Prophet’s (PBUH&HF) death were briefly as follows:

  1. Worshiping Allah, according to the level of his holiness Ali (A.S).
  2. Interpretation of the Quran, solving religious problems and decreeing the rule of incidents that didn't have a resemblance along the 23 Years of the prophet's (PBUH&HF) life.
  3. Answering the questions of scholars from other religions and other towns.
  4. Expressing the rule for many of the new events that didn't occur previously in Islam.
  5. Solving the problems when the caliphate system faced dead ends in political matters and some other problems.
  6. Educating and raising a group who have pure conscience and prepared soul for spiritual journey.
  7. Work and strife to secure the life of many of the poor and disabled to the extent that he would establish gardens and extract aqueducts and then would give them as endowments in the way of Allah [34].

   

Period of the caliphate of his holiness Ali (AS)

In the time of his holiness caliphate, three great wars were imposed upon him by Muslims; as Seffin, Jamal and Nahrawan which had specific consequences following. After the war of Nahrawan and the suppression of the Khawarij, some of the Khawarij among whom was Abdul-Rahman ibn Moljam Moradi and Barak ibn Abdulla Tameemi and Amr ibn Bakr-tameemi in one of the nights got together and decided to kill Imam Ali (AS), Muawiyah and Amr ibn Aass.

They concluded the treaty that each one of them be responsible for killing one of the three. Ibn-Moljam undertook killing Imam Ali (AS) and on the nineteenth night of the month of Ramadan accompanied with some stayed in the mosque of Kufa. That night his holiness Ali (AS) was a guest of his daughter’s and was aware of the morning accident. When he mentioned this to his daughter. Umm-Kulthum asked him not to go to the mosque tomorrow.

But his holiness Ali (AS) said: "It is not possible to escape the Allah decree". Then he got prepared and went to the mosque to say Morning Prayer. While Ali (AS) was in prostration, Ibn Moljam hit him with the sword on his forehead and blood from his holiness head streamed in the altar and dyed his honored beard. In this condition his holiness said:

"I swear by the Lord of Kaaba that I have won".

Then he recited verse 55 from Surah Taha:

“From it we created you and into it we shall send you back and from it we raise you a second time.”

The holiness Ali was at his last moment of his life still thinking of the welfare and happiness of the people. He advised his children, relatives, and all the Muslims saying: "I advise you of piety and to organize your deeds and always think of causing reconciliation among the Muslims. Don’t forget the orphans; regard the rights of the neighbors. Make Quran the practical program for you. Respect (honor) praying because it is the pillar of your religion". His holiness Ali (A.S) attained martyrdom on the 21 St of the month of Ramadan and was buried in the honored Najaf. His holy shrine became the tryst for the lovers of the truth and reality [35].

    

Main source: WORLD COUNCIL OF SHIA CENTERS.   

   


[1] The name of a year in Islamic history for the year approximately equating to 570 CE. According to Islamic tradition, it was in this year that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH&HF) was born. The name is derived from an event said to have occurred at Mecca: Abraha, the Abyssinian, Christian ruler of Yemen, marched upon the Kaaba in Mecca with a large army, which included 14 war elephants, intending to demolish it. Once the army of Abraha marched close to Ka'ba, Allah commanded flocks of birds, known as Ababil, to attack and destroy the Army of Abraha by throwing stones from their beaks.The Holy Qur'an tells this story in the Sura al-Fil.

[2] Ja’afar Sobhani, Forough Velayat, Page 8.

[3] Idiom, Page 9.

[4] Idiom, Page 11.

[5] Idiom, Pages 18-21.

[6] Idiom, Pages 22-25

[7] Idiom, Pages 27-29.

[8] Idiom, Page 33.

[9] Idiom, Pages 38-41.

[10] Idiom, Pages 62-66. (Those who are eager to know more about Ghadir, can refer to "The Sermon on the day of Ghadir" available on the website.)

[11] According to Shia belief, all of the ancestors of the Prophet and Imam Ali (AS) were monotheists. Refer to Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 15, Page 117.

[12] Sunni References:

-          Al-Hakim Nishapuri, Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Hyderabad, India, 1324 SH (1925 AD), Volume 3, Page 483 [Farsi].

-          Mahmud al-Alusi (author of Tafsir Alusi); Abdul Baqi Effendi, Sarh al-Faridah Sharh Ghasidah Einiya, Page 15.

Shi’a references:

-          Ibn Babawayh (Al-Shaykh al-Saduq), Ilal Al-Shara'i, Volume 1, Pages 135-136.

[13] Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume 3, Page 666, Hadith 6463; Sirah of Ibnu Hisham, Volume 1, Page 262; Tarikh al-Tabari, Volume 2, Page 313; Ilal Al-Shara'i, Page 169; Muḥammad ibn ʻAlī Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manāqib Āl Abī Ṭālib, Volume 2, Hadith 179.

[14]Ali ibn al-Athir, Usd al-ghābah fi ma‘rifat al-ṣaḥābah, Volume 5, Page 434, Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 38, Page 211; Musnad Ahmad, Volume 5, Page 662, Hadith 19796.

[15] Muḥammad ibn ʻAlī Ibn Shahrāshūb, Manaqeb aale Abi Talib, Volume 1, Page 43.

[16] Sunni references: Tarikh Tabari, Volume 2, Page 62-63; Ibn al-Athir, Al-Kāmil fī al-tārīkh, Volume 2, Page 40-41; Musnad Ahmad, Volume 1, Page 111.

Shi’a references: Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 18, Page 215-216; Ilal Al-Shara'i, Volume 1, Page 170.

[17] For example on the Day of Ghadir, the Prophet showed Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS) to everyone present, and said, “مَعاشِرَالنّاسِ، ... هُوَالتَّقِی النَّقِی الْهادِی الْمَهْدِی”, meaning, “Oh people, … he is the pure, pious, guider of guidance”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 37, Page 210.

[18] "إِنَّما يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنْكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَ يُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرا" meaning, “Verily God had willed to remove from you Ahlul Bayt and purify you with [extensive] purification”. The Holy Quran, Surah al-Ahzab (33:33).

Dozens of Sunni scholars relate the revelation of this verse to the Prophet, his daughter Fatimah Zahra (AS), Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS), Hassan (AS), and Hussain (AS) and testify to their purity and sinlessness based on this verse. For example, Al-Tirmidhi narrates in his Sahih from Omar ibn Abi Salame that, “When the Verse of Purification (33:33) was revealed to the Prophet in the home of Umm Salamah, the Prophet invited Ali, Fatimah, Hassan, and Hussain, pulled his cloak over them, and said, “Oh my Lord! These are my Ahlul Bayt. So make impurity and evil far from them and make them pure”. Sahih Tirmidhi, Volume 5, Page 327.

For examples of Shia sources refer to Tafsir Borhan, Volume 4, Page 442.

[19] Tabaqat Ibn Saad. Translated by Mahmoud Mahdavi Damghani [Farsi], Volume 3, Page 16.

[20] The following verse of the Quran was revealed in praise of this action of Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS):     "ومِنَ النّاسِ مَنْ یشْری نَفْسَه ابْتِغاءَ مَرضاتِ اللَّه واللَّه رءُوفٌ بِالْعِباد" Meaning, “And among the people is he who would sell himself, seeking the satisfaction of God, and God is kind to these servants”.The Holy Quran, Surah Baqarah [2:207]

[21] "عَلِيٌّ مَعَ الْحَقِّ وَ الْحَقُّ مَعَ عَلِي‏" “Ali is with the truth and the truth is with Ali”. Tarikh Dameshq, Volume 42, Page 449. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 38, Page 28.

[22] "اَللَّهُمَّ أَدِرِ الْحَقَّ مَعَهُ حَيْثُ دَارَ" “Oh God, surround the truth around Ali, whichever way Ali turns”. Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume 3, Page 134; Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, Tafsir al-Kabir, Volume 1, Page 205; Shawahed al-Tanzil, Volume 1, Page 246.

[23] "إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي فِيكُمْ كَمَثَلِ سَفِينَةِ نُوحٍ مَنْ رَكِبَهَا نَجَا وَ مَنْ تَخَلَّفَ عَنْهَا غَرِق‏" “Verily my Ahlul Bayt are like the Ark of Noah. Whoever takes refuge in them will be saved and whoever infringes on them will drown”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 23, Page 105.

[24] One of the phrases, from Surah Hamd (Al-Fatihah), which is recited in the daily prayers, is "اِهْدِنَا الصِّراطَ الْمُسْتَقِيم‏", meaning, “[Oh God,] Guide us to the Straight Path”. The Holy Quran, Surah Al-Fatihah (1:6).

[25] On the Day of Ghadir, The Prophet told the people, "مَعاشِرَالنّاسِ، أَنَا صِراطُ الله الْمُسْتَقیمُ الَّذی            أَمَرَکُمْ بِاتِّباعِهِ، ثُمَّ عَلِی مِنْ بَعْدی. ثُمَّ وُلْدی مِنْ صُلْبِهِ أَئِمَّةُ یَهْدونَ إِلَی الْحَقِّ وَ بِهِ یَعْدِلونَ " meaning, “Oh people, I am the straight path of God that he ordered you to stick to, then Ali is after me, and then my children from my line are. They are the Imams of guidance, they will guide towards the truth and establish justice therewith”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 37, Page 212.

[26] "أَنَا مَدِينَةُ الْعِلْمِ وَ عَلِيٌّ بَابُهَا فَمَنْ أَرَادَ الْعِلْمَ فَلْيَأْتِها مِن بَابِها (‏‏فَلْيَأْتِ الْبَاب)", meaning, “I am the City of Knowledge and Ali is its gate; whoever decides to find the City of Knowledge, must enter from its gate”. Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume 3, Page 136; Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 40, Page 203.

[27] "هَذا عَلیّ ... خَلِيفَتِي فِي أُمَّتِي عَلَى مَنْ آمَنَ بِي و عَلیَ تَفسیرِ کتابِ الله عز وجل", meaning, “Ali is my successor upon my nation and [my successor] upon the interpretation of the book of God Almighty”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 37, Page 209.

[28] "الْقُرْآنُ إِمَامٌ هُدًى وَ لَهُ قَائِدٌ يَهْدِي إِلَيْهِ‏ ..." meaning, “He is the commander of the Quran who will guide the people by means of the Quran”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 22. Page 487.

[29] "فَمَنْ عَمِيَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ عَمَلِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ لَمْ يَكُنْ عَلِمَهُ مِنِّي وَ لَا سَمِعَهُ فَعَلَيْهِ بِعَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ عَلِمَ كَمَا قَدْ عَلِمْتُهُ ...", meaning “If a portion of the Quran is not clear for someone and they did not learn it from me, they should refer to him for he, like I, possesses the entirety of knowledge of the Quran”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 2, Page 260.

[30] "عَلِيٌّ مَعَ الْقُرْآنِ وَ الْقُرْآنُ مَعَ عَلِيٍّ لَنْ يَفْتَرِقَا حَتَّى يَرِدَا عَلَيَّ الْحَوْض‏ ...", meaning, “Ali is with the Quran and the Quran is with Ali, and these two will not separate from each other until they arrive to me in the Pool of Kawther”. Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain, Volume 3, Page 34; Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 38, Page 35.

[31] The Holy Quran told the Prophet about “Mubahilah” event:, “فَمَنْ حَآجَّكَ فِیهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءنَا وَأَبْنَاءكُمْ وَنِسَاءنَا وَنِسَاءكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَةُ اللّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِینَ”, meaning, “Then whoever argues with you about it (Jesus) after this knowledge has come to you (about Jesus) - say, ‘Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly [together] and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars [among us]’”. The Holy Quran, Surah Āl ʻImrān (3:61).

Shia and scholars all agree that the meaning of the word ‘ourselves’ (anfosena) in this verse is Ali ibn Abu Talib (AS). For example, Musnad Ahmad bin Hanbal, Volume 1, Page 185. Sahih Muslim, Volume 7, Page 120.

Shia sources :Tafsir Borhan, Volume 1, Page 630-631, in reference to Verse 61 of Surah Āl ʻImrān.

[32] Refer to the text of the Sermon of Ghadir. For example, on that day, the Prophet stated:

"مَعَاشِرَ النَّاسِ‏ مَنْ یُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ‏ وَ عَلِیّاً وَ الْأَئِمَّةَ الَّذِینَ ذَكَرْتُهُمْ‏ فَقَدْ فازَ فَوْزاً عَظِیماً” meaning “Oh people, whoever obeys God, the Prophet, Ali, and the Imams that I have referred to will attain a great triumph”. Bihar al-Anwar, Volume 37, Page 217.

[33] For more information about Imam Ali (AS) and Shiism, see the "Who are the Shia and What do They Say?" course, available on the website.

[34] Ja’afar Sobhani, Forough Velayat, Pages 68-70.

[35] Idiom, Pages 372-380.

 

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